At whatever level we study it--relationships between individuals, new names for sports clubs, the human admixture at cocktail parties, in the police, on the directing boards of national or private banks--decolonization is quite simply the replacing of a certain "species" of men by another "species" of men. Without any period of transition, there is a total, complete, and absolute substitution. It is true that we could equally well stress the rise of a new nation, the setting up of a new state, its diplomatic relations, and its economic and political trends. But we have precisely chosen to speak of that kind of tabula rasa which characterizes at the outset all decolonization.
Resources The Edexcel Specification also expects you to understand Freud's theories as an alternative to the biological explanation of individual differences.
Parts of this page that are helpful for that are marked with the green Freud icon The Specification also expects you to understand Freud's theories as an alternative to the biological explanation of development.
An instinct is an unreflective urge within members of a species that is present from birth though it may get weaker or stronger later in life. Instincts can be restrained by willpower or training or encouraged by provocation and frustration. The ethological perspective looks at the aggressive instinct in animals.
The most famous ethologist studying aggression was Konrad Lorenz who defined aggression as: It says that human beings and other animals have evolved a "fighting instinct" to defend their territory, their mates and their offspring from rivals. Some call this affective aggression, based on fear or anger.
This is quite different from predatory aggression, which has evolved to acquire food. Why are cats cute when they're being aggressive? A different perspective from Lorenz is the instinct theory of Sigmund Freud which I shall consider next. Freud agrees with Lorenz that aggression is an instinct and even that it may have its origins in evolution and the structure of the brain.
However, he disagrees that it is a "survival trait". Freud thinks aggression is completely destructive and ultimately self-destructive. Why do we do it then?
Atavistic behaviour Instinct theorists like Freud and Lorenz agree that aggression is a left-over from our "pre-cultural" past. It is atavistic, the behaviour of our ancestors. In other words, it's an animal-type behaviour we no longer need but we're stuck with.
In the animal kingdom, most aggression is based on display and rarely leads to death; one animal backs down and admits the other is dominant. The overwhelming impression one gets from watching animal disputes is of remarkable restraint and self-control.
Knives, guns and bombs mean that we kill our enemies before they have a chance to back down. So if the aggressive instinct was useful for us once, it isn't any longer. Cathartic behaviour Instinct theorists like Freud and Lorenz also suggest that releasing aggression is good for us.
Releasing strong emotion in a healthy way is called catharsis and it produces a cleansing effect.
This is why we always feel better inside after a good laugh or a good cry. Instinct theory says we also feel better after releasing aggression. In fact, by releasing aggression, we reduce the aggressive urges that were building up inside us, making us less likely to lose control.
This is called the "Hydraulic Model" of aggression. The Model suggests that aggression is like steam in a kettle, boiler or pressure cooker. It builds up and up. Eventually it explodes - this is a violent outburst.
However, we can "let off steam" or "vent our aggression" in smaller, controlled doses - this is catharsis. An obvious way of releasing aggression in a cathartic way is by taking part in a controlled aggressive activity - like a physical sport.
Catharsis doesn't have to involve violence. Even non-contact sports like tennis and athletics can vent our aggression. In fact, even board games can be cathartic. Catharsis is one of the more controversial aspects of instinct theory. Even more so is the idea that we can release aggression through catharsis just by watching aggression - such as the audience in a boxing match or violent movie.
It's OK folks, it's cathartic! This page adds some detail to link those theories to aggression. It can be compared to the part of an iceberg that is above the water.Shyness is the awkwardness or apprehension some people feel when approaching or being approached by other people.
Unlike introverts, who feel energized by time alone, shy people often desperately. drives or death instinct that Freud discovered during the First World War can become the support of the aggressive drives.
Up to Freud, the dispute was centred on the innate ideas in the context of the controversies between rationalist and empiricist philosophers. Sigmund Freud Quotes Quotations on Humanity, Instincts, Ego, Mind, Unconscious, Religion and Psychoanalysis.
The first human who hurled an insult instead of a stone was the founder of rutadeltambor.comd Freud. Freud's universal and comprehensive theory of the mind probably will outlive the psychoanalytical therapy, and seems already to have placed him with greatest thinkers Charles Darwin and William Shakespeare rather with the scientists he overtly aspired to emulate.
Thank you – I needed to read this. I have been ABD for 4 years and I was suppose to finish this year. But I saw the writing on the wall and there was absolutely no support at my school for the research I wanted to do, let alone career advice.
Ppt Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud 1. the main cause of behavior lie in unconscious mind 4. Free Association rutadeltambor.comretation rutadeltambor.com Analysis V.
Analysis of Resistance rutadeltambor.comis of Transference 1. Maintaining the Analytic Framework •Maintaining therapist’s neutrality and objectivity •The regularity and consistency.