An analysis of the first world war and submarine warfare

Sonobuoys Weaponry Depth Chargesthe most used weapon, were improved during the course of the war. Y-guns and K-guns were used to throw depth charges to the side of the escort vessel, augmenting the charges rolled off the stern and letting the escort vessel lay a pattern of depth charges The development of forward-throwing anti-submarine weapons such as Hedgehog and the Squid. This allowed the escort vessel to stay in contact with the submarine during an attack. When the German Navy developed an acoustic homing torpedo, torpedo countermeasures such as the Foxer acoustic decoy were deployed.

An analysis of the first world war and submarine warfare

The History Learning Site, 17 Apr The use of unrestricted submarine warfare was announced by Germany on January 9th, The use of unrestricted submarine warfare was to have a major impact on World War One as it was one of the main reasons why America joined the war.

Why did Germany resort to such a tactic that was likely to provoke such a response from America? Bythe war was not going well for Germany on the Western Front. Unrestricted submarine warfare was a result of desperation and the belief that the ferocity of such a tactic might just keep America out of the war if the results were spectacular and shocking enough.

Therefore any attempt by the German surface fleet to attack British merchant ships was not tenable as any fleet leaving bases like Kiel would have been met with a considerable fleet from the Royal Navy.

Rather than do this piecemeal, Bethmann Hollweg decided on a policy of wholesale unrestricted attack. The impact of U-boats was overestimated in Germany. At the start of the war, the German submarine service had a couple of high profile successes against British naval targets but after this, successes became rare.

However, the public in Germany had a high opinion as to the ability of the submarine to turn a campaign. U-boats first attacked commercial targets as early as February but it was a piecemeal campaign. This ended in January when Bethmann Hollweg, persuaded by senior officers in the German Imperial Navy, ordered unrestricted attacks as part of policy.

The one issue that had held Bethmann Hollweg back was the sinking of neutral ships. At that time America was a neutral state whose ships frequently and legally crossed the Atlantic with supplies for the Allies.

He believed that the sinking of a few neutral merchant ships at the start of a campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare would be enough to scare off most ships from trading with Britain.

However, on this occasion Pohl was not listened to for two reasons. The first was that the U-boat fleet was simply not big enough to execute a successful campaign against the numerous merchant ships that sailed around the British coast as in Februarythere were only 21 U-boats available in total.

At times only 4 U-boats patrolled the British coastline as some were in for repairs or an overhaul. Second, many still believed that such an approach was unethical and against the rules of war. On February 18th,Germany announced that it would start a commerce war against those nations trading with Britain.

Amongst others, America sent a strongly worded note to Berlin to state in very blunt terms that Germany would be held responsible for any American ship that was sunk. Therefore, Bethmann-Hollweg persuaded senior naval officers to exclude neutral ships from the order — especially ships from America.

On February 22nd,the U-boat commerce war started. In March5, ships entered and left British ports. Only 21 were attacked. As a result of this, neutral shipping that had been put off by the declaration, soon resumed trading once again believing that they were all but safe from attack.

Among the dead were American citizens. The sinking caused outrage in America but not to the extent that President Woodrow Wilson was prepared to declare war on Germany.

In fact, in a note written on July 23rd,Wilson wrote that Germany had changed her ways of attacking ships by submarine. Any neutral ship not carrying contraband was allowed to go to the port it was sailing for. Any neutral ship caught with contraband was sunk — but only after the crew had got off into lifeboats.

This seemed sufficient for Wilson to remain pacified in However, though the German government believed that this was the case, the German navy had no intention of carrying out such a policy claiming that the simple act of a submarine coming to the surface was too dangerous for their crews, especially as some merchant ships had been fitted with concealed guns.

On June 6th,Wilhelm II ordered that all large passenger liners, whether neutral or not, must not be attacked.

The Kaiser then ordered that no passenger liner was to be attacked until all the crew and passengers had been given the chance to escape.Germany and Britain were not the only nations with submarines in the First World War.

France, Italy, Russia and Austro-Hungary were also in the game. France, Italy, Russia and Austro-Hungary were also in the game. Unrestricted submarine warfare was first introduced in World War I in early , when Germany declared the area around the British Isles a war zone, in which all merchant ships, including those from neutral countries, would be attacked by the German navy.

World War One is often referred to as the ‘first modern war’ – and in the war at sea, many tactics and much technology was in use for the first time at scale.

Anti-submarine warfare - Wikipedia

Effective submarine warfare was a particularly new phenomenon, with Germany focusing on U-Boat production to counter the larger British surface fleet and put pressure on its Atlantic . History of Warfare: The Second World War in the Far East [H.P. Willmott, John Keegan] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

Until its loss in World War II, Japan had not known failure in centuries of warfare. This record of the conflict goes beyond mere description to illuminate why Japan instigated a conflict with the only nation--the United States--capable of defeating her.

An analysis of the first world war and submarine warfare

Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track, and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines.. Successful anti-submarine warfare depends on a mix of sensor and weapon technology, training, and experience.

Sophisticated sonar equipment for first detecting, then classifying, locating. world war i. updated january jump to: timelines / primary documents, letters, & diaries.

An analysis of the first world war and submarine warfare

statistics & casualties / diplomacy and causes of the war. participating countries / battle strategy & info. weapons & the troops / trench warfare / gas warfare.

Essay: Submarine Warfare in World War 1

military medicine / war in the air & on the sea. maps, images, art / war propaganda. spies - espionage - codes!

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare - History Learning Site