Published Fri 22 Jun By Grace Rattue According to a new study the prevalence and incidence of autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, celiac disease, and type 1 diabetes, is on the rise and researchers at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention are unsure why. Finland also showed a similar increase. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body's own immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, while Type 2 diabetesthe most common form of diabetesoccurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or cannot use the insulin adequately. Earlier studies have shown that genetics and environmental factors cause autoimmune diseases.
Abstract Declines in heart disease and stroke mortality rates are conventionally attributed to reductions in cigarette smoking, recognition and treatment of hypertension and diabetes, effective medications to improve serum lipid levels and to reduce clot formation, and general lifestyle improvements.
Recent evidence implicates these and other cerebrovascular factors in the development of a substantial proportion of dementia cases.
Analyses were undertaken to determine if corresponding declines in age-specific prevalence and incidence rates for dementia and cognitive impairment have occurred in recent years.
Data spanning 1 or 2 decades were examined from community-based epidemiologic studies in Minnesota, Illinois, and Indiana, and from the Health and Retirement Study, a national survey. Although a marginal decline was observed in the Minnesota cohort, no clinically significant trends were apparent in the community studies.
A significant reduction in cognitive impairment measured by neuropsychological testing was identified in the national survey. Cautious optimism appears justified. Introduction Life expectancy has increased dramatically over the past century across the globe [ 1 ].
This salutary trend unfortunately also has a negative aspect in that common chronic diseases of older people are becoming much more prevalent. Bythe prevalence is expected to quadruple, so that 1 in 85 persons will be living with the disease [ 3 ], and Although the prevalence of dementia and its associated disability increases exponentially with age [ 4 — 6 ], the focus of research has recently shifted towards younger persons and the early stages of cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment MCI.
The hope is to discover pathogenetic mechanisms underlying dementia and to delay the conversion of cognitive decline and MCI to full dementia [ 7 ]. Indeed, if interventions could delay disease onset or progression by as little as 1 year, nearly 9.
Dementia and AD represent a significant public health challenge for US society and one that is only likely to increase as the population ages. For example, there has been a large increase in diagnosis of AD on US death certificates in the last 10 years.
However, it is important to separate increases in death certificate diagnoses due to growing awareness of the disease from increases due to changes in disease occurrence or mortality.
Distribution of Alzheimer's disease patients in the United States as of , by age group Share of patients with Alzheimer's disease in the U.S. by age group Alzheimer's disease is the only top 10 cause of death in the United States that cannot be prevented, cured or even slowed. Alzheimer's disease is the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States, and the fifth-leading cause of death among those age 65 and older. Deaths from Alzheimer's Disease — United States, –, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Interventions to Prevent Age-Related Cognitive Decline, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Clinical Alzheimer's-Type Dementia.
Epidemiologists have attempted to uncover a wide range of risk and protective factors for dementia. Advocacy and public health organizations have also made efforts over the last 3 decades to increase the awareness of dementia and its known risk factors among both the public and practicing physicians.
Thus far, these efforts have likely altered the risk of dementia only modestly, if at all. Based on the time trends in potential risk and protective factors for cognitive impairment, there are good reasons to expect a decline in the incidence rates of cognitive impairment over time.
However, there are also some trends in cardiovascular risk factors that would suggest an expected increase. A cluster of demographic, lifestyle, and medical factors have been identified which appear to alter the risk of developing dementia [ 89 ].
Prominent amongst these are vascular risk factors, including hypertension and diabetes [ 1011 ]. Because cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease contribute to the risk of dementia, and because there has been a substantial decline in the incidence of stroke in the last 50 years, some decline also in the risk of dementia might be expected.
Alternatively, improved survival after stroke, or an increased prevalence of subclinical vascular disease in the absence of overt stroke, might result in more individuals in the population with increased risk of dementia. New medications and other therapies for cardiovascular disease introduced since the early s e.
While the likelihood of treating hypertension and diabetes has increased, so also has the prevalence of these 2 conditions.
From toin African-Americans over age 65 years, the prevalence of hypertension climbed from The increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity may have contributed to an increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia, although the negative impact on brain health of diabetes and obesity may not become evident until future decades.
The increasing level of education among older adults over the past 20 years may have influenced the prevalence and outcomes of dementia. The proportion of adults age 65 years or older with a high school diploma increased from More years of formal education is associated with a reduced risk of dementia [ 17 ], likely through multiple causal pathways, including a direct effect on brain development and function i.
Like education, greater wealth is associated with lower levels of disability throughout the life course and may have contributed to declining levels of dementia over the past 20 years.
In addition, there has been a widespread general increase in Intelligence Quotient IQ score, known as the Flynn effect.
Mean IQ score in the United States was estimated to have risen Objective: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and can have significant morbidity and rutadeltambor.com objective of this study was to calculate the prevalence, incidence, healthcare costs, and mortality of RA-related ILD (RA-ILD) in the United States.
States, the top three causes of DALYs in were ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and low back pain. The only cause to appear in the 10 leading causes of DALYs in and not was drug use disorders. Part of the data was presented as a poster at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Conference on Health Statistics, Washington, District of Columbia, August 6–8, Author Contributions: A.
Mehari study concept and design, acquisition of, analysis and interpretation of data, and preparation of manuscript. Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne illness in the United States.
In , it was the sixth most common Nationally Notifiable disease. Lyme Disease Data File. Trends in the incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, and cognitive impairment in the United States.
R. Brookmeyer, S. Gray, C.
KawasProjections of Alzheimer’s disease in the United States and the public health impact of delaying disease onset. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a form of dementia characterized by progressive deterioration in memory, cognition, and functional ability.
The number of persons with AD in in the United States was estimated to be between million  and million .The projected number of people with dementia in Europe was estimated at million in .