That great, geologically young mountain arc is about 1, miles 2, km long, stretching from the peak of Nanga Parbat… For thousands of years the Himalayas have held a profound significance for the peoples of South Asia, as their literature, mythologies, and religions reflect. In contemporary times the Himalayas have offered the greatest attraction and the greatest challenge to mountaineers throughout the world.
Introduction Himalayasalso Himalaya Sanskrit for "abode of snow"mountain system in Asia, forming a broad continuous arc for nearly km mi along the northern fringes of the Indian subcontinent, from the bend of the Indus River in the northwest to the Brahmaputra River in the east.
The Himalayas range, averaging to km to mi in width, rises sharply from the Gangetic Plain. Geologic Formation and Structure The Himalayan mountain system developed in a series of stages 30 to 50 million years ago. The Himalayan range was created from powerful earth movements that occurred as the Indian plate pressed against the Eurasian continental plate see Plate Tectonics.
The earth movements raised the deposits laid down in the ancient, shallow Tethys Sea on the present site of the mountains to form the Himalayan ranges from Pakistan eastward across northern India, and from Nepal and Bhutan to the Myanmar Burmese border.
Even today the mountains continue to develop and change, and earthquakes and tremors are frequent in the area. Topography Physically, the Himalayas forms three parallel zones: Each of these lateral divisions exhibit certain similar topographic features.
The Great Himalayas, the highest zone, consists of a huge line of snowy peaks with an average height exceeding m 20, ft.
The width of this zone, composed largely but not entirely of gneiss and granite, is about 24 km about 15 mi. Spurs from the Great Himalayas project southwards into the Middle Himalayas in an irregular fashion.
The Nepal and Sikkim a state of northern India portion of the Great Himalayas contains the greatest number of high peaks. The snow line on the southern slopes of the Great Himalayas varies from m 14, ft in the eastern and central Himalayas of Nepal and Sikkim to m 17, ft in the western Himalayas.
The Great Himalayan region is one of the few remaining isolated and inaccessible areas in the world today. Some high valleys in the Great Himalayas are occupied by small clustered settlements.
Extremely cold winters and a short growing season limit the farmers to one crop per year, most commonly potatoes or barley. The formidable mountains have limited the development of large-scale trade and commerce despite the construction of highways across the mountains linking Nepal and Pakistan to China.
Older trails, which cross the mountains at high passes, also have limited trade and are open only during the summer months. The Middle Himalayas range, which has a width of about 80 km about 50 miborders the Great Himalayan range on the south.
It consists principally of high ranges both within and outside of the Great Himalayan range. The Middle Himalayas possess a remarkable uniformity of height; most are between and m between and 10, ft. The Middle Himalayas region is a complex mosaic of forest-covered ranges and fertile valleys.
While not as forbidding as the Great Himalayas to the north, this range has nonetheless served to isolate the valleys of the Himalayas from the plains of the Indus and Ganges rivers in Pakistan and northern India.Himalayas, Nepali Himalaya, great mountain system of Asia forming a barrier between the Plateau of Tibet to the north and the alluvial plains of the Indian subcontinent to the south.
The Himalayas include the highest mountains in the world, with more than peaks rising to elevations of 24, feet (7, metres) or more above sea level.
The highest mountains on Earth are found in the Himalayas. This great mountain system of southern Asia stretches for about 1, miles (2, kilometers) from west to east.
Most of the Himalayas lie within China, India, Nepal, and Bhutan. The Himalayas are a young dynamic mountain system and include the highest peaks, deepest gorges and highest glaciers in the world. The region has a wide variety of ecosystems, ranging from grasslands and subtropical forests to high alpine meadows.
The 10 highest mountains on Earth, called the "eight-thousanders," are all located in the Himalayas. Mount Everest is the tallest. Photos: The World's Tallest Mountains. Himalayas. I. Introduction. Himalayas, also Himalaya Among these peaks are the world's highest mountain, Mount Everest ( m/29, ft), which is on the Nepal-Tibet border; The Himalayan mountain system developed in a series of stages 30 to 50 million years ago.
Mount Everest or Qomolangma is the highest mountain in the world, with a peak at 8, metres (29, ft) above sea level. It is also the tallest mountain in the world from base to peak.
Mount Everest is located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas.