An introduction to the nature of the macaque monkeys

Near the first-floor entrance is a playroom for impatient children to idle while parents push warehouse carts full of bookshelves. Barely a foot tall, the gimlet-eyed creature scanned the growing crowd around him looking for any sign of his keeper. Several of them snapped his photograph.

An introduction to the nature of the macaque monkeys

Edward Taub[ edit ] Edward Taub born is a behavioral neuroscientist currently based at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He became interested in behaviorism while studying philosophy at Columbia University, and went on to study under Fred Keller and Wiliam N.

Schoenfeldthe experimental psychologists.

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He took a job as a research assistant in a neurology lab to gain more understanding of the nervous systemand became involved in deafferentation experiments with monkeys. An afferent nerve is a sensory nerve that conveys impulses from the skin and other sensory organs to the spine and the brain.

Deafferentation is a surgical procedure in which the spinal cord is opened up and the sensory nerves cut so that these impulses do not reach the brain. A monkey whose limbs have been deafferented will not feel them, or even be able to sense where they are in space. At his trial inTaub told the court that deafferented monkeys are notoriously difficult to look after, because they regard their deafferented limbs as foreign objects, mutilating them and trying to chew them off.

Engaged in what he saw at first as pure researchhe conducted several kinds of deafferentation experiments. He deafferented them at birth. He removed monkey fetuses from the uterus, deafferented them, then returned them to be born with no sense of their own bodies.

Norman Doidge writes that Taub wondered whether the reason the monkeys abandoned use of the deafferented limbs An introduction to the nature of the macaque monkeys simply that they were still able to use their good ones.

He tested his idea by deafferenting one arm of a monkey and restraining the good arm in a sling. The monkey subsequently used its deafferented arm to feed and move itself around.

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He reasoned that, if a monkey refused to use a deafferented arm because it could rely on its good arm, then deafferenting both arms would force the monkey to use them, a finding that seemed paradoxical, but which his experiments confirmed.

He even deafferented the entire spinal cord, so that the monkey received no sensory input from any of its limbs, but it still used them.

Doidge writes that Taub had an epiphany, guessing that the reason the monkeys would not use their deafferented limbs was simply because they had learned not to, an idea he called " learned non-use.

The Washington Post writes that he was raised in Mexico, the son of a doctor, and wanted to become a priest.

He worked on the anti-whaling ship, the Sea Shepherd Conservation Societyjoined the Hunt Saboteurs Association in England, and when he returned to the United States to study political science at George Washington, he teamed up with Ingrid Newkirka local poundmaster, to form People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals in March Sarah, the lone female, was a control subject, which meant she had been left intact.

She had been purchased from a dealer, Litton Laboratories, when she was one day old, and had lived since then, for eight years, in the Institute.

He had had one arm deafferented. He had chewed off all the fingers on that hand and pulled the skin and flesh off the palm, exposing the bone. Billy had undergone surgery to deafferent both arms, and used his feet to pick up food pellets.

He found frozen monkey corpses in a refrigerator, and others floating in formaldehyde. He said the wires of the cages were caked in filth, with feces piled in the bottom of the cages, and urine and rust on every surface, with the 17 monkeys picking at scraps of food that had fallen through the wire floor of the cages into the waste tray below.

He wrote that 12 of the monkeys had deafferented limbs, with 39 of their fingers deformed or missing. He described them as neurotic, attacking their deafferented limbs as though they were foreign objects: Whenever a bandage was applied, it was never changed, no matter how filthy or soiled it became.

They were left on until they deteriorated to the point where they fell off the injured limb. Old, rotted fragments of bandage were stuck to the cage floors where they collected urine and faeces.

The monkeys also suffered from a variety of wounds that were self-inflicted or inflicted by monkeys grabbing at them from adjoining cages.

I saw discoloured, exposed muscle tissue on their arms. Two monkeys had bones protruding through their flesh. Several had bitten off their own fingers and had festering stubs, which they extended towards me as I discreetly took fruit from my pockets.

With these pitiful limbs they searched through the foul mess of their waste pans for something to eat. He showed them in July to animal rights activists, including Cleveland Amorywho gave him money for a better camera and some walkie-talkies, so that a look-out outside could alert him if visitors arrived unexpectedly.

He also asked Peter Hamilton of the Vancouver-based Lifeforce Foundation to assist with the investigation. According to The Washington Post, Geza Teleki, a primatologist at George Washington University, wrote that he had never seen a lab so poorly maintained, and psychologist Donald Barnes, a former primate researcher, wrote that it was a "miserable and unhealthful environment for the primates" and a health hazard for humans.Sous-famille Cebinae Bonaparte, Genre Cebus Erxleben, Le genre Cebus comprend les espèces de singes du Nouveau Monde appelées capucins ou sajous ou sapajous.

In Malaysia, certain terrestrial wildlife species are classified as 'totally protected' or 'protected' by federal legislation under the Malaysian Wildlife Conservation Act The act covers hunting, fishing, capturing and trading, illegal research and study, anti-cruelty clauses as well as requirements for zoo management.

An introduction to the nature of the macaque monkeys

Originally from the Atlas mountains and the Rif mountains of Morocco, the Barbary macaque population in Gibraltar is the only wild monkey population on the European rutadeltambor.comgh most populations in Africa are experiencing declining populations due to hunting and deforestation, the population of Barbary monkeys in Gibraltar is increasing.

Currently, some animals in five troops occupy. We spoke with Psychologist David Moore to find out more about the science of epigenetics, its impact on the nature versus nurture debate, how epigenetic research relates to humans, and the hopes and cautions that come with such a potentially revolutionary line of research.

Born Free USA is a national animal advocacy nonprofit (c)(3) organization. Our mission is to advocate for the protection of animals from cruelty and exploitation.

We spoke with Psychologist David Moore to find out more about the science of epigenetics, its impact on the nature versus nurture debate, how epigenetic research relates to humans, and the hopes and cautions that come with such a potentially revolutionary line of research.

Cebus — Wikipédia