Hippocampus Part of the limbic system, responsible for transferring short-term memories into long-term memories and controlling spatial navigation. Cerebellum Plays a role in motor control, managing coordination, precise actions and timing. Basal Ganglia A cluster of neurons responsible for a number of functions including movement, learning ability and emotional reaction. Pre-frontal cortex Thought to be where cognitive performance is controlled, including decision-making and social behaviour.
Cannabidivarin Cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors[ edit ] The most prevalent psychoactive substances in cannabis are cannabinoidsmost notably THC. How these other compounds interact with THC is not fully understood.
Some clinical studies have proposed that CBD acts as a balancing force to regulate the strength of the psychoactive agent THC. The essential oil of cannabis contains many fragrant terpenoids which may synergize with the cannabinoids to produce their unique effects.
Research in rats has indicated that THC prevented hydroperoxide -induced oxidative damage as well as or better than other antioxidants in a chemical Fenton reaction system and neuronal cultures.
Cannabidiol was significantly more protective than either vitamin E or vitamin C. A signature of this type of receptor is the distinct pattern of how the receptor molecule spans the cell membrane seven times.
The location of cannabinoid receptors exists on the cell membrane, and both outside extracellularly and inside intracellularly the cell membrane. CB1 receptors, the bigger of the two, are extraordinarily abundant in the brain: CB2 receptors are most commonly prevalent on B-cellsnatural killer cellsand monocytesbut can also be found on polymorphonuclear neutrophil cellsT8 cellsand T4 cells.
In the tonsils the CB2 receptors appear to be restricted to B-lymphocyte -enriched areas. THC and its endogenous equivalent anandamide additionally interact with glycine receptors.
Biochemical mechanisms in the brain[ edit ] See also: Like most other neurological processes, the effects of cannabis on the brain follow the standard protocol of signal transductionthe electrochemical system of sending signals through neurons for a biological response.
It is now understood that cannabinoid receptors appear in similar forms in most vertebrates and invertebrates and have a long evolutionary history of million years. There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2.
The CB2 receptor is most abundantly found on cells of the immune system. Cannabinoids act as immunomodulators at CB2 receptors, meaning they increase some immune responses and decrease others.
For example, nonpsychotropic cannabinoids can be used as a very effective anti-inflammatory. Cannabis drug testing Most cannabinoids are lipophilic fat soluble compounds that are easily stored in fat, thus yielding a long elimination half-life relative to other recreational drugs.
The THC molecule, and related compounds, are usually detectable in drug tests from 3 days up to 10 days according to Redwood Laboratories; long-term users can produce positive tests for two to three months after ceasing cannabis use see drug test.
Related to smoking[ edit ] A study found that while tobacco and cannabis smoke are quite similar, cannabis smoke contained higher amounts of ammoniahydrogen cyanideand nitrogen oxidesbut lower levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs.
This tar is chemically similar to that found in tobacco smoke or cigars. Other observations include possible increased risk from each cigarette; lack of research on the effect of cannabis smoke alone; low rate of addiction compared to tobacco; and episodic nature of cannabis use compared to steady frequent smoking of tobacco.
Further, he notes that other studies have failed to connect cannabis with lung cancer, and accuses the BLF of "scaremongering over cannabis". Psychological effects[ edit ] The psychoactive effects of cannabis, known as a " high ", are subjective and can vary based on the person and the method of use.
When THC enters the blood stream and reaches the brain, it binds to cannabinoid receptors. The endogenous ligand of these receptors is anandamidethe effects of which THC emulates. This agonism of the cannabinoid receptors results in changes in the levels of various neurotransmitters, especially dopamine and norepinephrine ; neurotransmitters which are closely associated with the acute effects of cannabis ingestion, such as euphoria and anxiety.
Abstract or philosophical thinking, disruption of linear memory and paranoia or anxiety are also typical.
Anxiety is the most commonly reported side effect of smoking marijuana. Cannabidiol CBDanother cannabinoid found in cannabis in varying amounts, has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of THC, including anxiety, that some consumers experience.
In some cases, cannabis can lead to dissociative states such as depersonalization   and derealization. THC is typically considered the primary active component of the cannabis plant; various scientific studies have suggested that certain other cannabinoids like CBD may also play a significant role in its psychoactive effects.
Peak levels of intoxication typically last an average of three to four hours. Also, oral ingestion use eliminates the need to inhale toxic combustion products created by smoking and therefore negates the risk of respiratory harm associated with cannabis smoking.
Neurological effects[ edit ] The areas of the brain where cannabinoid receptors are most prevalently located are consistent with the behavioral effects produced by cannabinoids.
Brain regions in which cannabinoid receptors are very abundant are the basal gangliaassociated with movement control; the cerebellumassociated with body movement coordination; the hippocampusassociated with learningmemory, and stress control; the cerebral cortexassociated with higher cognitive functions; and the nucleus accumbensregarded as the reward center of the brain.The offense of driving under the influence, or DUI, typically relates to alcohol rutadeltambor.com alcohol is just one of countless substances that can impair one's ability to operate a motor vehicle.
Driving under the influence of drugs -- including prescription medications as well as illegal drugs -- . The effects of cannabis are caused by the chemical compounds in the plant, including cannabinoids, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is only one of more than different cannabinoids present in the plant.
Cannabis has various psychological and physiological effects on the human body.. Different plants of the genus Cannabis contain different and often unpredictable concentrations of. Use of illicit* drugs or misuse of prescription drugs can make driving a car unsafe—just like driving after drinking alcohol.
Drugged driving puts the driver, passengers, and others who share the road at risk. Why is drugged driving dangerous?
The effects of specific drugs differ depending on how they act in the brain. For example, marijuana can slow reaction time, impair judgment of time and distance, and decrease coordination. Conclusion: Effects of Drugs on Driving Research suggests that drugged driving is a much more widespread and serious problem than generally recognized.
There is a common lack of understanding about the powerful effects of drugs on driving ability. Emergency Preparedness. Bioterrorism, drug preparedness and natural disaster response.
Drug Approvals and Databases. CDER highlights key Web sites.