Max Gerber] I am often asked whether I agree with the new group selectionists, and the questioners are always surprised when I say I do not. After all, group selection sounds like a reasonable extension of evolutionary theory and a plausible explanation of the social nature of humans. Also, the group selectionists tend to declare victory, and write as if their theory has already superseded a narrow, reductionist dogma that selection acts only at the level of genes.
You have asked me, Lucilius, why, if a Providence rules the world, it still happens that many evils befall good men. This would be more fittingly answered in a coherent work designed to prove that a Providence does preside over the universe, and that God concerns himself with us.
But since it is your wish that a part be severed from the whole, and that I refute a single objection while the main question is left untouched, I shall do so; the task is not difficult, - I shall be pleading the cause of the gods.
Even the phenomena which seem irregular and undetermined - I mean showers and clouds, the stroke of crashing thunderbolts and the fires that belch from the riven peaks of mountains, tremors of the quaking ground, and the other disturbances which the turbulent element in nature sets in motion about the earth, these, no matter how suddenly they occur, do not happen without a reason; nay, they also are the result of special eauses, and so, in like manner, are those things which Essay on primary education in mother tongue miraculous by reason of the incongruous situations in which they are beheld, such as warm waters in the midst of the sea- waves,and the expanses of new islands that spring up in the wide ocean.
But let such matters be kept for their fitting time, - all the more so, indeed, because you do not lack faith in Providence, but complain of it.
I shall reconcile you with the gods, who are ever best to those who are best. For Nature never permits good to be injured by good; between good men and the gods there exists a friendship brought about by virtue. Friendship, do I say? Nay, rather there is a tie of relationship and a likeness, since, in truth, a good man differs from God in the element of time only; he is God's pupil, his imitator, and true offspring, whom his all-glorious parent, being no mild taskmaster of virtues, rears, as strict fathers do, with much severity.
And so, when you see that men who are good and acceptable to the gods labour and sweat and have a difficult road to climb, that the wicked, on the other hand, make merry and abound in pleasures, reflect that our children please us by their modesty, but slave-boys by their forwardness; that we hold in check the former by sterner discipline, while we encourage the latter to be bold.
Be assured that the same is true of God. He does not make a spoiled pet of a good man; he tests him, hardens him, and fits him for his own service.
You ask, "Why do many adversities come to good men? Just as the countless rivers, the vast fall of rain from the sky, and the huge volume of mineral springs do not change the taste of the sea, do not even modify it, so the assaults of adversity do not weaken the spirit of a brave man. And yet I do not mean to say that the brave man is insensible to these, but that he overcomes them, and being in all else unmoved and calm rises to meet whatever assails him.
All his adversities he counts mere training. Who, moreover, if he is a man and intent upon the right, is not eager for reasonable toil and ready for duties accompanied by danger? To what energetic man is not idleness a punishment? Wrestlers, who make strength of body their chief concern, we see pitting themselves against none but the strongest, and they require of those who are preparing them for the arena that they use against them all their strength; they submit to blows and hurts, and if they do not find their match in single opponents, they engage with several at a time.
Without an adversary, prowess shrivels. We see how great and how efficient it really is, only when it shows by endurance what it is capable of. Be assured that good men ought to act likewise; they should not shrink from hardships and difficulties, nor complain against fate; they should take in good part whatever happens, and should turn it to good.
Not what you endure, but how you endure, is important. Do you not see how fathers show their love in one way, and mothers in another? The father orders his children to be aroused from sleep in order that they may start early upon their pursuits, - even on holidays he does not permit them to be idle, and he draws from them sweat and sometimes tears.
But the mother fondles them in her lap, wishes to keep them out of the sun, wishes them never to be unhappy, never to cry, never to toil. Unimpaired prosperity cannot withstand a single blow; but he who has struggled constantly with his ills becomes hardened through suffering; and yields to no misfortune; nay, even if he falls, he still fights upon his knees.
Do you wonder if that God, who most dearly loves the good, who wishes them to become supremely good and virtuous, allots to them a fortune that will make them struggle? For my part, I do not wonder if sometimes the gods are moved by the desire to behold great men wrestle with some calamity.
We men at times are stirred with pleasure if a youth of steady courage meets with his spear an onrushing wild beast, if unterrified he sustains the charge of a lion. And the more honourable the youth who does this, the more pleasing this spectacle becomes.
But these are not the things to draw down the gaze of the gods upon us - they are childish, the pas-times of man's frivolity.
I do not know, I say, what nobler sight the Lord of Heaven could find on earth, should he wish to turn his attention there, than the spectacle of Cato, after his cause had already been shattered more than once, nevertheless standing erect amid the ruins of the commonwealth.
This sword, unstained and blameless even in civil war, shall at last do good and noble service: Essay, my soul, the task long planned; deliver yourself from human affairs. Already Petreius and Juba have met and lie fallen, each slain by the other's hand.
For Cato it were as ignoble to beg death from any man as to beg life.
His virtue was held in check and called back that it might display itself in a harder role; for to seek death needs not so great a soul as to reseek it.
Surely the gods looked with pleasure upon their pupil as he made his escape by so glorious and memorable an end!Children learn better in their mother tongue. UNESCO has encouraged mother tongue instruction in primary education since (UNESCO, ) and UNESCO highlights the advantages of mother tongue education right from the start: children are more likely to enroll and succeed in school (Kosonen, ); parents are more likely to communicate .
Education in the Philippines is provided by public and private schools, colleges, universities, and technical and vocational rutadeltambor.comg for public education comes from the national government.. At the basic education level, the Department of Education (DepEd) sets overall educational standards and mandates standardized tests for the K–12 basic education system, although private.
subject of language in education. About mother tongue Orekan () asserted that one learns and continues to only in one’s primary language (mother tongue).
Language is very closely related to the mind because one thinks and normally no one can think. It emphasizes the psychological importance of language to humans particularly the mother. Why schools should teach young learners in home language.
By Professor Angelina Kioko 16 January - (ahead of a late primary transition stage).
Critical Analysis of "Mother Tongue" Essay; Critical Analysis of "Mother Tongue" Essay. Words Oct 22nd, Purpose of Mother Tongue-based Education A. Reasons why the Mother Tongue should be used in primary schools B. Points and ideas about Mother Tongue-based Education III. Target learners of Mother Tongue-based . This is the full text of Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay, rutadeltambor.comn uses several words that are not in common use today. You'll find the definitions of those words by . Landon was born full-term weighing g or 7 lbs. 7 oz, born by urgent cesarean due to fetal intolerance to labor after the water had broken.
Yet, many developing countries continue to use other languages for teaching in their schools. For these learners, using the mother tongue in early education leads to a better.
Education in Malaysia is overseen by the Ministry of Education (Kementerian Pendidikan).Although education is the responsibility of the Federal Government, each state and federal territory has an Education Department to co-ordinate educational matters in its territory.
The main legislation governing education is the Education Act The education system is divided into preschool education. The main idea of Amy Tan's "Mother Tongue" is the limitations that imperfect English can impose in society and the richness that such English can bring to writing.
Tan elaborates this idea by scrutinizing her mother's language, her own use of English and society's response to different people's.