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Definitions of the four dimensions[ edit ] Locus of control[ edit ] The locus of control construct indicates a tendency for individuals to attribute life's events to their own doing or to outside forces beyond their control.
There are two basic classifications of locus of control: Internals believe they control their own environment whereas externals believe Evaluation of impact and developments of forces control their lives.
Those high in neuroticism react more negatively to stress, are prone to anxiety, and susceptible to feelings of helplessness. Self-esteem[ edit ] Self-esteem reflects a person's overall appraisal of his or her own worth.
Historically, three models have been used to study job satisfaction. The situational and interactionist approaches had received a majority of the support in previous literature. Acknowledging this disparity, core self-evaluations were developed in an effort to increase exploration of the dispositional approach to job satisfaction.
An evaluative trait is one that involves a fundamental value judgment about oneself, rather than a simple description "I am confident and worthy," vs. Job satisfaction is itself an evaluation that people make about their jobs; therefore, an individuals' evaluations, especially those regarding how they think of and value themselves, should have a large effect on their job satisfaction.
A fundamental trait, also called a source trait, is one that is basic and underlying. Fundamental traits together cause broader "surface" traits,  and affect all other more specific evaluations.
For example, self-doubt and frustration are considered to be source traits that commonly predict the surface trait of aggression. Fundamental traits will have a stronger and more consistent effect on job satisfaction than surface traits.
A trait which is large in scope, or global, will more likely generalize to the workplace than a specific trait will.
For example, a global evaluation of one's worth will better predict overall job satisfaction than a specific evaluation of one's artistic ability. Using the above characteristics, four well studied personality traits; locus of control, neuroticism, generalized self-efficacy, and self-esteem, were chosen as possible dispositional predictors of job satisfaction.
Each trait had previously presented as a relatively powerful predictor of various job outcomes; however, until this time, these traits' predictive powers had only been studied in isolation. When studied together, Judge et al.
In other words, relative levels of each of these four traits in an individual can be explained by one broad underlying trait; core self-evaluations. Furthermore, combining these traits allowed for better prediction of job satisfaction, and later, a variety of other outcomes.
Many researchers of personality psychology argue that specific traits have been proposed and studied without considering that these traits have a broad, common core. Many such traits correlate so highly that they should be considered measures of the same construct,  which is the case with the four traits of core self-evaluations.
These traits are very closely related, and each one only predicts a small portion of job satisfaction by itself. However, when combined into one core trait i. Some argue that trait indicators of core self-evaluations are the same as various conceptualizations of the neuroticism component of the Big Five.
Additionally, no existing neuroticism scales measure self-esteem. Furthermore, measures of neuroticism include only descriptive questions and do not contain an evaluative component.Evaluation and Impact Studies IIE is at the forefront of measuring the long-term impact of international scholarship and capacity-building programs focused on education and development.
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