Disegno allowed the three visual arts — architecture, painting and sculpture — to be recognised as liberal arts concerned with ideas, a status that they had rarely been accorded previously. In the new division of labour, architects acquired complementary means to practice architecture that became as relevant as building, namely drawing and writing. Consequently, architects — especially influential ones — tend to talk, write and draw as well as build.
Their numbers mushroomed in Europe and the United States and spread into the developing world as well. By World War II, over one hundred international fairs had been organized and had recorded an aggregate attendance of several hundred million. The Latin word "feria" means holy day; in German, the word "Messe" signifies both fair and mass.
In the context of the scientific and technological revolutions sweeping Europe and the United States during the late nineteenth century, fairs were becoming sites for pilgrimage and sources of inspiration, guidance, wonderment, and despair. That, at least, was the message Adams conveyed when he laced his famous essay "The Dynamo and the Virgin" with observations about the meaning of technological change at the Universal Exposition.
Only a few exhibitions have received adequate scholarly attention, but that situation is changing. It is precisely this upsurge of interest in fairs that suggests the need for the present historiographical and bibliographical undertaking. The essay that follows is divided into three parts. Part one provides a short history of international fairs and examines the significance of international exhibitions in the context of industrialization, national political consolidation, and imperialism.
Part two is a historiographical essay that surveys a selection of past and present writings about fairs and illuminates the variety of approaches taken by scholars in these studies. What follows is an effort to stimulate scholarly investigation into sources that are only beginning to receive the attention they deserve.
These fairs not only reflected a "modern" outlook on life, they helped shape the perspective. Fairs influenced popular belief systems, buttressing them with scientific, political, and religious authority. Prominent political figures, scientists, and clergy performed ceremonial functions and organized exhibits and conferences for the exhibitions.
As powerful cultural influences, fairs moved to the center stage of world history at the end of the nineteenth century. How and why did this happen? How and why did fairs spread from western Europe to the United States and the developing world, becoming, in effect, a worldwide movement?
The key to comprehending the origin and diffusion of expositions, as well as their form, content, and function, turns on understanding that international expositions complemented efforts by powerful groups within industrialized and industrializing nations to consolidate their political and economic authority at home, along with their imperial gains overseas.
European Fairs The origin of international exhibitions is usually traced quite precisely to the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, more commonly known as the Crystal Palace Exhibition.
But the Crystal Palace Exhibition did not emerge out of thin air. Its promoters, members of the Royal Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, including Prince Albert as patron, drew heavily on and reshaped several earlier exhibition traditions.
In the first place, the Crystal Palace was preceded by a centuries-old tradition of fairs that, at least since the Middle Ages, had intersected with religious festivals. Conceding the possibility that "if they could, by means of their organization, throw themselves in a body upon any one point, they might be successful in a coup de main," Albert remained confident of the "loyalty of the country on the whole.
A quiet green, but few days since, With cattle browsing in the shade, And lo! Long lines of bright arcade In order raised; A palace as for fairy prince, A rare pavilion, such as man Saw never since mankind began, And built and glazed.
British colonial displays testified to the global dimensions and power of the British Empire, while exhibits of Colt arms and the McCormick Reaper convinced British industrialists that industrialization in the United States was a force with which to contend.Nov 28, · Dissertationen rwth aachen architektur.
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Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuu’s. May 31, · My daughter wishes to study the World's Fairs of the 19th Century and the early 20th Century in order to see how they may have created or perpetuated stereotypes about minorities, particularly Africans or American Negroes.
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