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There has always been a double aspect to such encounters. At an immediate and practical level, conquest, colonization and trade led to modes of domination or coexistence and multi-faceted transcultural relationships.
In Europe, such encounters with "otherness" led to attempts to explain and interpret the origins and nature of racial and cultural linguistic, religious and social diversity. At the same time, observation of alien societies, cultures and religious practices broadened the debate on human social forms, leading to a critical reappraisal of European Christian civilization.
InhaltsverzeichnisTable of Contents Preliminary remarks Now the Great Map of Mankind is unrolled at once; and there is no state or Gradation of barbarism, and no mode of refinement which we have not at the same instant under our View. The very different Civility of Europe and of China; the barbarism of Persia and Abyssinia, the erratic manners of Tartary, and of Arabia.
In the second half of the 15th century, Europe entered an age of discovery which resulted in new, increasingly dense relationships with territories and populations all over the world.
This also involved geographical, geological and other discoveries, as knowledge of the shape and layout of the world and the location of resources entered the Western consciousness.
But there was also an important ethno-anthropological aspect to the discoveries, as the variety of peoples and forms of social organization affected European reflections on human society, culture, religion, government and civilization through a continuous interplay between the testimonies of travellers and the work of scholars at home.
The term discovery is controversial as it implies a passivity on the part of indigenous populations, who were "found" by Europeans. This asymmetrical view denies an autonomous existence to indigenous populations before the arrival of Europeans.
Since the early s, historians have increasingly replaced the term "discovery" with "encounter", which is perceived as more neutral and implying a reciprocity rather than the subject-object relationship implied by the term "discovery". The term "encounter" is also free of the ideological connotations that terms such as "conquest" and "expansion" imply, and "encounter" is compatible with a transcultural approach to global history.
The adoption of a more neutral term does not, however, alter the fact that a process of European penetration into regions of the world previously unknown to Europeans did occur, and through this process Europeans "discovered" for themselves new species and ecosystems, and new peoples and societies.
During this process, European perceptions of the encountered "others" were dominated from the outset by a hierarchical perspective. As "encounter" implies a reciprocal, two-way process, the study of these encounters is not complete without considering the non-European perspective.
However, this article will deal primarily with the European side of the encounter. With whom, where and when? For many centuries, Europe's "others" had been the "barbarian" peoples encountered by the Greeks and the Romans, then the Islamic Arabs and later the Mongols.
For five centuries, the Ottoman Turks remained the primary "other" for Christendom. In all these cases, the "others" were enemies who constituted a direct threat to Christian Europe. During the early modern period, however, Europeans encounters were the consequence of a process of expansion on the part of dynamic Western societies during their transformation into modern capitalist economies and nation-states.
The first wave of expansion during the 15th and 16th centuries focused on three main areas.
Firstly, there was the Atlantic basin from the Atlantic islands and coastal western Africa to the central areas of the American continent. Secondly, there were the northern seas, stretching eastward from the Baltic to the White Sea and the Siberian coasts and westward to the northern American coasts of CanadaLabradorthe Hudson Bay and the Baffin Island.
Thirdly, there was the Oriental seas and northern Asia.
The second wave of expansion occurred during the 18th century, mainly in the Pacific region, including AustraliaTasmaniaNew GuineaNew Zealand and the Pacific Islandsand also in the northern seas between Alaska and Siberia. The third wave witnessed expansion into central Africa by Europeans during the 19th century the so-called "scramble" or "race" for Africa.
Each successive wave brought encounters with new "others" for white Europeans, and — reciprocally — brought several peoples in different parts of the world into the sphere of influence of a self-confident, fair skinned "other" equipped with big vessels, firearms and an insatiable hunger for riches and souls.
Together these waves of expansion constitute an age of global plunder which primarily benefitted the Western world, but they also prepared the way for an ever more "transcultural" world. Besides redistributing the world's resources in Europe's favour and increasing Europe's global power, these processes had two interrelated, long-term consequences.
Firstly, they provided a new stimulus to European thinking on nature, man, society, religion, law, history and civilization, and brought into being new areas of intellectual enquiry, such as anthropology, comparative history, linguistics, biology and sociology.
Secondly, they produced an impressive array of printed travel accounts and historical writings, through which the deeds of European adventurers, conquistadores and navigators entered into national historical narratives.
Such publications brought the experience of new worlds into the purview of cultivated Europeans. European encounters with different races of people had taken place since antiquity, as recorded by Herodotus ca.
Notable sporadic voyages, and diplomatic and religious missions had been undertaken in the 13th century to eastern Asiato the Mongolian Empire and to the court of the Great Khan, mainly by Italians.
Naval explorations beyond Gibraltar by Portuguese and Italian navigators had seen voyages westward and along the southern Atlantic routes and the western coasts of Africa during the 14th and 15th centuries. But voyages that took place from the s onward had an impact which went far beyond their economic or political significance.
The arrival of the Spanish in the "New World" would also transform life in Europe and the Americas on the material, cultural and intellectual levels, drawing both Europe and the Americas into an increasingly transatlantic and transcultural relationship, producing what has been described as the "Columbian exchange".
In the West and in the East, the Europeans established contact with different kinds of human societies and cultures. The societies and cultures which Europeans encountered in the Caribbean and in continental North and South America were generally viewed as "savagery". However, Europeans also encountered civilizations which they viewed as more "advanced" in the form of the Aztec, Maya and Inca empires, posing fundamental historical and ethnological questions.
In the East, on the other hand, Europeans encountered civilizations that they recognized as ancient, complex and highly structured civilizations, which — unlike indigenous populations in the Americas — did not present them with pliable trade partners or easily subjugated native populations.The years between and witness the ongoing industrialization of France, as in other countries of Western Europe and in North America.
Economically, politically, culturally, and socially, Paris continues to be at the center of French life, periodic efforts at decentralization notwithstanding.
Essays. and research papers Understanding Evolution: History. and our text from Exodus the genesis of the conflicts between spain and france in the s is Need Facebook Who Wants To Be A Millionaire answers. The genesis of the conflicts between spain and france in the s.
The 16th century begins with the Julian year and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October ).
The 16th century is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of the West occurred. France and Spain continued with large shipbuilding programs in the s, with the intention to renew the challenge against Britain in future contests in the Atlantic. The other two Atlantic powers, Portugal and the Dutch Republic, preferred neutrality during most of the eighteenth century.
Essays. and research papers Understanding Evolution: History. and our text from Exodus the genesis of the conflicts between spain and france in the s is Need Facebook Who Wants To Be A Millionaire answers. While the term "Spain" may be improper when used to refer to France–Spain relations before the union of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon in , there has always been important relations between what are now France and Spain.