This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Social forces such as addictions, family breakdown, and mental illness are compounded by structural forces such as lack of available low-cost housing, poor economic conditions, and insufficient mental health services.
Posted on November 16, by admin By: Robert Fischer, Plymouth Congregational Church Frequently references are made that homelessness as we know it today is rooted in severe HUD cuts in the early s.
The authors present case studies of promising practices from the State of Arizona and Columbus, Ohio, demonstrating innovative uses of client and program data to measure performance and improve program management toward state policy goals, such as increased housing placement rates, reduced lengths of homelessness, and improved housing stability. Abstract. An examination of the professional, political, and popular literature on the nature and extent of homelessness from to affords a comparison of the economic and social characteristics of the homeless population at the turn of the century with that of today. Social policy is how a society responds to social problems. Any government enactment that affects the well-being of people, including laws, regulations, executive orders, and court decisions, is a social policy. In the United States, with its federal tradition of shared government, social policies are made by governments at many levels—local, state, and national.
While policy changes did have a large impact exacerbating the problem, homelessness has been documented in America since In the s homelessness was seen as a moral deficiency, a character flaw.
People outside of that grace somehow were deserving of their plight as God rendered justice accordingly and fairly. If not, they would be on the not so merry way to the next town or hamlet. Homelessness is a complex social issue with many variables.
Unfortunately, for those experiencing homelessness, the impact of the values of the s are still pervasive. Displacement of people has many causes; industrialization, wars and subsequent problems, natural disasters, racial inequities, medical problems, widowhood, and the values of a nation as represented by their policies relating to the disenfranchised systemic issues.
City jails became de facto shelter systems. Poor safety regulation caused a lot of physical disability and death.
Those disabled and widows, many with dependent children had no means to provide for themselves and nowhere to turn. The s brought the first documented cases of homeless youth, many of whom were kicked out of their homes because their providers could no longer afford to raise them.
The Civil War was the first war where the newly discovered painkiller morphine was used. Now people with amputated limbs could survive. Opiate addiction became rampant with s of thousands of war veterans addicted.
From the s until the s one could purchase morphine and heroin with syringes from Sears and Roebucks catalogues. Many rural housewives also became addicted in response to the monotony of life in the middle of nowhere. Criminalization of drug addiction soon followed in response to the epidemic.
Natural Disasters are another factor in the homelessness problem. Systemic issues have developed over time.
People living in generational poverty do not have the resources and support to become educated and move out of poverty.
Racial divides still occur in the areas of healthcare, education, access to mortgages, access to equal paying jobs among many others.
The constant bombardment of racial messages takes root in the social consciousness. This ethos becomes obvious when we study policy choices. Embedded in subconscious, these systemic issues raise boundaries making it very difficult for any one individual to overcome on their own.
Internationally progress has been made on how we look at the problem of homelessness. Where do we go from here?
A solid examination of our policies and the underlying values must be questioned. As a nation, we need to recognize and believe in dignity of each individual.Furthermore the figures also indicate that the incidence of homelessness is on the increase in America with homelessness rates tripling between and More recently The National Law Center for Homelessness and Poverty reports that over 3 million men, women, and children were homeless over the .
And fourth, some social commentators cite a "culture of poverty" among certain segments of the lower class American population as a central reason for the growth of homelessness in America.
Ironically, this argument arose out of a structural analysis of the conditions of poverty in the s. - Homelessness is a social issue in the United States of America, one that has been with us for decades, if not for our entire history.
Of particular concern within the scope of this paper is the subject of homelessness among military veterans. Current Issues and Programs in Social Welfare.
by Dr. Jerry Marx, Social Work Department, University of New Hampshire.
Note: This entry is the first in a two-part series about current issues and programs in social . The drug policy of the United States is established by The Office of National Drug Control Policy, a former cabinet-level component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, which was established by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of And fourth, some social commentators cite a "culture of poverty" among certain segments of the lower class American population as a central reason for the growth of homelessness in America.
Ironically, this argument arose out of a structural analysis of the conditions of poverty in the s.